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'SUMMARY OF THE PRINCIPAL EVENTS AND MEASURES OF THE VICEROYALTY OF HIS EXCELLENCY LORD CURZON OF KEDLESTON, VICEROY AND GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF INDIA IN THE FOREIGN DEPARTMENT. I. JANUARY 1899-APRIL 1904. II. DECEMBER 1904-NOVEMBER 1905. VOLUME IV. PERSIA AND THE PERSIAN GULF.' [‎38v] (81/386)

The record is made up of 1 volume (189 folios). It was created in 1907. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

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63
taken until the extension of the British protectorate in Arabia had been
carefully considered both from the political and from the military point of
view. At the bednninEf of 11)03, in connection with the aggiessive designs
of the Turks in El Katr which had then become manifest, Lord Curzon again
suroested the conclusion of an agreement between the British Government
and* the Sheikh. In November 1903, on the eve of his cruise in the Persian
Gulf, durinsr which, it was thought, Sheikh Ahmad might seek an inter
view'with the Viceroy in Bahrein, Lord Curzon asked to be informed of the
final decision of His Majesty’s Government in regard to British protection of
El Katr : the reply was that in view of the adherence of the Turks to the status
quo, as exemplified in the abandonment of their scheme for new Turkish Mu-
dirates, negotiations fora British protectorate could not properly be undertaken,
and that in these circumstances communications to the Sheikh must be limited
to assurances of continued friendship so long as he should abstain from enter
ing into engagements with other powers. Sheikh Ahmad, however, did not
appear in Bahrein and the assurances authorised remained undelivered. A
few months later, in March 1904, Lord Curzon pointed out to the Secretary of
State that the status quo which His Majesty’s Government desired to recognise
and maintain included the withdrawal by Turkey of any claim to administrative
control or suzerainty over El Katr, and that the failure of the Turks, so far,
to act up to their assurances in this matter left His Majesty’s Government free
to reconsider the question of protection ; he suggested, therefore, that the time
was opportune for concluding an agreement with Sheikh Ahmad under which
the latter should bind himself not to enter into relations with, not to receive
the representative of, and not to cede territory to, any foreign power : the
agreement would thus substantially resemble those entered into with the
Trucial Chiefs from which no inconvenient obligations had been found to
result. Bis Majesty’s Government were sensible of the inconveniences which
might arise, in the suppression of piracy or the protection of the pearl-
banks from outside interference, through the non-existence of an agreement
between the Sheikh and Government; hut they doubted whether the objects
to be attained by the proposed agreement were of sufficient importance to
counterbalance the suspicion and ill-will which it would be calculated to
arouse in the minds of the Turkish Government; and they requested an ex
pression of Lord Curzon’s views as to the possibility of concluding some
modified arrangement less likely to wound Turkish susceptibilities. Lord
Curzon considered that any agreement concluded must, in order to strengthen
the Sheikh's position, be of a public and open character and he deprecat
ed the introduction of precautions and reservations which might defeat
their own object, which might be held to imply for the first time the
existence of Turkish rights in El Katr, and which might possibly pre
clude a completely satisfactory agreement at some more opportune season:
as an alternative, however, he suggested that Sheikh Ahmad might formally
admit that the treaty of 1S68, concluded with his father, was binding upon
himself also—a step which would afford a basis for a certain degree of British
control over the maritime relations of the Sheikh with foreigners. His
Majesty’s Government, however, saw no advantage in a revival of the agree
ment of 1868 because, for the purpose in view, it could only be made effective
by giving it an interpretation considerably in excess of what its actual terms
would bear ; and, having regard to the general sense of insecurity and suspicion
prevailing in the neighbourhood of the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , they were unwilling to
raise any question touching the status quo in that quarter. This decision was
reached in February 1905, after which there were no further proceedings in
the matter.
The islands of the Bahrein archipelago, though subject to a British protec-
Batrein torate, were the scene, during the period
under review, of incessant political trouble
for which the obstinacy and incompetence of Isa, the ruliug Sheikh, were
chiefly responsible; in 1904 these difficulties culminated in an open rupture
between the Sbeikh and the British Government. Hie first symptom of some*
thing amiss vas a burglary committed in 1899, in which two British Indian
subjects were wounded and property belonging to the British firm of Fracis

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Content

Printed at the GC [Government Central] Press, Simla.

The volume is divided into three parts: Part I (folios 5-47) containing an introduction; Part II (folios 48-125) containing a detailed account; and Part III (folios 126-188) containing despatches and correspondence connected with Part I Chapter IV ('The Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. ', folios 28-47).

Part I gives an overview of policy and events in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. region during Curzon's period as Viceroy [1899-1905], with sections on British policy in Persia; the maintenance and extension of British interests; Seistan [Sīstān]; and the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. . Part II contains more detailed accounts of selected topics, including sections on British policy in Persia, customs and finance, quarantine, administration, communications, and British and Russian activity in Seistan. The despatches and correspondence in Part III include correspondence from the Government of India in the Foreign Department, the Secretary of State for India, and the Viceroy; addresses and speeches by Curzon; and notes of interviews between Curzon and local rulers.

Mss Eur F111/531-534 consist of four identical printed and bound volumes. However, the four volumes each show a small number of different manuscript annotations and corrections.

This volume contains manuscript additions on folios 8, 11-12, 14, 42 (a sixteen word note concerning the use by the Shaikh of Koweit [Kuwait] of a distinctive colour [flag] for Kuwait shipping), and 62-66.

Extent and format
1 volume (189 folios)
Arrangement

The volume contains a list of Parts I-III on folio 4; a table of contents of Part I on folio 6; a table of contents of Part II on folio 49; and a table of contents of Part III on folios 127-129, which gives a reference to the paragraph of Part I Chapter IV that the despatch or correspondence is intended to illustrate.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence (used for referencing) commences at the inside front cover with 1, and terminates at the inside back cover with 191; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio. Pagination: the file also contains an original printed pagination sequence.

Written in
English in Latin script
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'SUMMARY OF THE PRINCIPAL EVENTS AND MEASURES OF THE VICEROYALTY OF HIS EXCELLENCY LORD CURZON OF KEDLESTON, VICEROY AND GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF INDIA IN THE FOREIGN DEPARTMENT. I. JANUARY 1899-APRIL 1904. II. DECEMBER 1904-NOVEMBER 1905. VOLUME IV. PERSIA AND THE PERSIAN GULF.' [‎38v] (81/386), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, Mss Eur F111/534, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100070118029.0x000052> [accessed 19 August 2019]

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