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File 4011/1923 Pt 1 'PERSIAN GULF NEGOTIATIONS 1928-33. BASIDU.' [‎48v] (101/1306)

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The record is made up of 1 volume (649 folios). It was created in 22 Oct 1923-29 Nov 1933. It was written in English, French and Arabic. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

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Lor. i, 439.
o r n igo6 the Ruler of Muscat kidapped the head of the Rani Ma in. whom
Vcarried o(f .o Muec.t ,nd de.ained
.,n as a'ransom for his release, but the Sheikh of Ras-al lUiaimah by throwing a
J P as , _£ m orlo if imnr>s<5lhlp for the Bam Ma in tn
Lor. i
643;
Lor.
1930.
Lor. i, 658.
Lor. i, 657.
Lor. i, 659.
Lor.
note.
660,
Precis, § 235 ( / ).
Lor. i, 1936.
force fntolhe town of kishm,’ made it impossible for the Ram Ma’in to com^
with these terms^ ^ Jowasimi were driven out of Lingah and Charak by ^
Persians and were compelled to retire to Basidu, while m the same year the
Towasimi stronghold of Luft in Kishm was captured by the British and handed
nver intact to an agent of the Ruler of Muscat.
11 The sequence of events in Kishm, and at Basidu between 1809 and 1818
is bv no means clear, but in the latter year the Jowasimi pirates are reported to
have entertained the idea of forming a settlement at Basidu, to which they could
retire if attacked by the Egyptian invaders of the Gulf area. I he execution of
this scheme is believed to have been frustrated largely by the defeat in
December 1918 of a Jowasimi squadron by the East India ( ompany's ship
A. ntclovG •
12 In 1819 Gulf policy was under discussion at Bombay. The Government
of Bombay appear to have inclined to a scheme under which the Ruler of Oman
should be'placed in charge for the future of the Pirate or Trucial Coast The historic term used by the British to refer to the Gulf coast of Trucial Oman, now called United Arab Emirates. and the
islands of Bahrein, and should in return authorise the formation of a British
settlement on the Island of Kishm, and even defray the coast of maintaining it.
13 It may be noted that the Chief Secretary, Bombay, an expert official who
had made a special study of Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. subjects, while agreeing as to the
establishment of a British station at Kishm, “ to this end would have negotiated
with the Government of Persia rather than that of Oman.” He was over
ruled by the local Government, but Mr. Lorimer remarks : “ It cannot be doubted
that he stood on firm ground when he insisted that his (the Imam of Muscat's)
claim to sovereign rights over Kishm as against Persia, was probably
ill-founded." . fal
14. The Government of Bombay on the 28th October, 1819, indicated to
Major-General Sir William Grant Keir that they were of opinion that the
u
“occupation by the British Government of a central and commanding station in
the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. was indispensable in connexion with the permanent
suppression of piracy, nor is the Governor in Council aware oi a more eligible
station than the Island of Kishma for that purpose. ...
“It is understood that the Island of Kishma, as well as Angar, which
is contiguous to it, belongs in full sovereignty to the Imam of Muscat, and
should the reports that may be received from you and the other persons to
whom the consideration of this important subject has been confided, be
favourable to the measure now suggested, the necessary negotiation will be
opened for obtaining possession of the spot that may be fixed upon for
forming the establishment.”
Precis, § 206.
15. In a despatch of the 15th December, 1819, to the Government of India,
the Government of Bombay remarked with reference to the same point:—
“ (10) We anticipate, however, some opposition on the part of the
Persian Government to that measure [forming of a British establishment in
reisitui vjuveLimiem, to uiat measure [ lorming oi a im iwsii estaunoim*—
the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. ], since it would be difficult we apprehend to satisfy tn a
1 - ;._1 .1 r j r A- * ^ the
power that our views were limited to the professed object of our policy, the
more especially as the Persian Government has manifested some degree o
alarm at our contemplating the occupation of the Island of Bahrein. .
“ (11) With a view to allaying these alarms and of enabling the Bntis
Envoy at Tehran to afford to the Persian Government an explicit and caI1 ^,
exposition of the objects to which the expedition is exclusively directed, an
of the ultimate plan which we contemplate for the permanent su PPp? ss1 ^
uxiv, wiuiinatc piau vvmuii we ixHuempiaie ioi me permo-nciiL >
of piracy, our President has addressed a letter to Mr. Willoek [f har„
(1 A ftD1 T*PO at Toftr>oi, 1 /-\-P nrl-ii,, 1 ^ ^.J i ~ n ■.-.t-V, i/->V» tl'USt ^1
d Affaires at Tehran], of which the enclosed is a copy, which we trust wi
produce the effect of conciliating the Government of Persia to the arrange
ments which we have submitted to your consideration, or to any other wnic
your Lordship may be pleased to prescribe, and in particular to °
permanent occupation of Kishma.”
( 2 ) The reference is to the Government of India Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. Precis ( 1801 - 1853 ).
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Content

This volume relates to the British occupation of Basidu, situated on Kishm [Qeshm] Island in the Gulf, close to the south coast of Persia [Iran], and occupied by the British since the early 1820s. It is stated in the correspondence that the site had been used mainly as a coal depot for British naval vessels until 1913, and that since then it has been retained on 'political grounds', as a potential bargaining asset in negotiations with Persia.

The correspondence primarily concerns the British claim (or lack thereof) to Basidu, in the event of the Persian Government questioning Britain's ongoing occupation. It covers the history of Basidu's status and the various existing agreements that relate to it, as part of an attempt by the British to gather documentary evidence to support their claim. Also discussed are a number of reported incidents at Basidu, involving British representatives and the local Persian authorities, mainly regarding customs, taxes, and the presence of the British naval guard. In addition, the correspondence touches on Anglo-Persian relations in general, with occasional references being made to ongoing treaty negotiations between the two countries.

The volume's principal correspondents are as follows: the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. ; the British Minister in Tehran; the Senior Naval Officer in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. ; officials of the India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. , the Foreign Office, the Admiralty, and the Government of India's Foreign and Political Department. Other notable but less frequent correspondents include the following: the Foreign Secretary to the Government of India; the Viceroy of India; the Commander-in-Chief of the East Indies Station; the Law Officers of the Crown.

Included with the correspondence are several related documents, including the following: two sketch maps (f 622); copies (in English and Arabic) of a treaty dated 1856 between Muscat and Persia, in which the Imam of Muscat acknowledges Kishm Island as being part of the Persian Empire (f 179 and ff 221-223); draft and final copies of an India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. memorandum dated 18 October 1933, outlining Britain's understanding of the history of the status of Basidu from 1720 to 1928, including extracts from nineteenth century reports and related correspondence (ff 46-54 and ff 123-159); a submission of reference, prepared by the India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. and the Foreign Office, for the Law Officers of the Crown, requesting the latter's legal opinion on the strength of the British claim to Basidu (ff 43-45 and ff 67-83); a copy of a secret report on Basidu, prepared by the Commander-in-Chief at the East Indies Station, containing extracts from the East Indies Station's records and notes from the Senior Naval Officer in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. (ff 16-38).

The Arabic language material consists of the aforementioned treaty text. The material written in French consists of small extracts from correspondence and treaty articles. It should be noted that there is no material covering the years 1924 and 1925.

The volume includes two dividers, which give a list of correspondence references contained in the volume by year. These are placed at the back of the correspondence (ff 4-5).

Extent and format
1 volume (649 folios)
Arrangement

The papers are arranged in approximate chronological order from the rear to the front of the volume.

The subject 4011 ( Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. Negotiations) consists of two volumes, IOR/L/PS/10/1094-1095. The volumes are divided into two parts, with each part comprising one volume.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence (used for referencing) commences at the inside front cover with 1, and terminates at the inside back cover with 651; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio.

Written in
English, French and Arabic in Latin and Arabic script
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File 4011/1923 Pt 1 'PERSIAN GULF NEGOTIATIONS 1928-33. BASIDU.' [‎48v] (101/1306), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/10/1094, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100077104051.0x000066> [accessed 19 October 2019]

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