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File 345/1908 Pt 1 'Mohammerah: situation. British assurances to Sheikh.' [‎143r] (290/416)

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The record is made up of 1 volume (203 folios). It was created in 1904-1910. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers Documents collected in a private capacity. .


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{T his Docament i s the Property of His Britannic Majesty’s Government}
[August 25.]
Section 2,
No. 1.
Mr. G. Mackenzie to Foreign Office.—(Received August 25.)
3 sf;p isos 0
X < v / p r n.
Tempsford Hall, Sandy, Beds,
Dear Sir Charles, August 23, 1908.
I PASS on the inclosed, received by last mail, as it may interest you*.
Mirza Hamza came by steamer via Bombay, and when in London came to see me
several times. He is supposed to have come to Europe for medical advice, and is now
in Germany. He told me he intended to do the Hadj and go to Mecca on his way
back to Mohammerah.
Lyle is one of our partners in Bussorah, and a personal friend of the Sheikh of
Koweit, whom he has frequently visited. He did come home via Bagdad and
Constantinople, but in no way connected with business, nor did he call upon any one
when there. In fact, we at home had no idea that he intended taking that route.
Yours very truly,
Inclosure in No. 1.
Translation of an Article in the Arabic paper “ El Liwwaf published in Cairo, dated
26 Jemad-el- Evvel, 1324 (June 25, 1908).
Politics in Mesopotamia.
AT the end of last month Mirza Hamza, agent of Sheikh Khazal, the Ruler of
Mohammerah, left for India en route to London. It is rumoured that he is travelling
on a tour and for a change, but this is only a falsehood, and he has not left here for
anything but a political business in hand of ruinous results for Mesopotamia.
Mirza Hamza left on behalf of his Sheikh, and Mr. Archibald Lyle, agent of Gray,
Mackenzie steamers in Bussorah, on behalf of the Sheikh of Koweit, or the Sultan of
Koweit, as some people pretend to call him.
The said agent travelled via Bagdad with the pretext that in doing this his
intention is to go to Constantinople. Just a few days before his departure the owner
of Koweit invited him for a consultation in closing an Agreement with England.
When the Sheikh of Mohammerah saw his friend entering into an Agreement with
England, he also, who had been preparing himself for this for some time, wished to
join him in the shameful act.
Also Mr. Crow, British Consul in Bussorah, left for London on a six months’
furlough, and it is known to everybody that he left for the purpose of fulfilling the
Agreement between his Government and the two Rulers of Koweit and Mohammerah.
Woe to them, if they only knew what England did with people, when they dared to do
this disgraceful act. It is their want of sincerity to their respective Governments and
lack of patriotism that prompted them to this act. They are left to their discretion to
act as they wish, and there is nobody to prevent them. In this they are justified.
As for the Turkish Government, which is a praiseworthy one, it is a Government
of honour for Islam. If it was the misconduct of some of the officials, who
forget everything and wink their eyes at everything to such an extent of indifference
that it resulted in the inclination of Koweit to England, we ask our Lord the Sultan—
whom God may exalt!—to send to these countries officials true to their Government
and nation, so that internal disorders may subside.
We do not know what the two Sheikhs expect in delivering themselves up to
England. England has introduced herself in their affairs, and British underhand
politics are already in activity in Mesopotamia, especially in Koweit and Mohammerah,
causing ruin and destruction. England is introducing arms in Mesopotamia from the
two places above mentioned to such an extent that you find even a boy not yet
14 years of age armed with a rifle.
[1900 2 ]
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The correspondence discusses the situation regarding British assurances to the Sheikh of Mohammerah. The volume includes a description of the Sheikh's perception that, despite his good behaviour towards the British he has not been afforded the support provided to other Arab sheikhs in the Gulf as in Kuwait or Bahrain. Letters include an account of the explanation given to the Sheikh of Mohammerah that Britain recognized Bahrain and Kuwait as independent, in de jure as well as de facto terms; in contrast the British recognized the Shah's sovereignty over Mohammerah.

The correspondence discusses the practicalities of a customs arrangement between the Shah and the Sheikh of Mohammerah mediated by the British. Letters consider the circumstances under which Britain could intervene militarily to protect its interests in the Karun Valley in the event of disorder arising following interference by the Shah.

The correspondence discusses the scope and form of words of the assurance to be given to the Sheikh of Mohammerah and his male descendants, in the event of disorder following from a change in the Persian regime, be it of a royalist, nationalist, or constitutional nature as well as disputes with Bakhtiari khans.

Correspondents include: Shaikh Khazal Khan, Sardar Leader of a tribe or a polity; also refers to a military rank or title given to a commander of an army or division. -i-Afra, the Shaikh of Mohammerah; The Confidential Agent of the Shaikh of Mohammerah; Major Percy Zachariah Cox, Her Majesty's Consul at Bushire; Sir Edward Grey, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs; Acting Consul of Mohammerah.

Each part includes a divider which gives the subject and part numbers, year the subject file was opened, subject heading, and list of correspondence references contained in that part by year. This is placed at the back of the correspondence.

Extent and format
1 volume (203 folios)

The papers are arranged in approximate chronological order from the rear to the front of the volume. The subject 345 (Mohammerah) consists of two volumes, IOR/L/PS/10/132-133. The volumes are divided into two parts, with each part comprising one volume.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence commences at the first folio with 1 and terminates at the last folio with 203; these numbers are written in pencil and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio.The foliation sequence does not include the front and back covers, nor does it include the one leading flyleaf.

Written in
English in Latin script
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File 345/1908 Pt 1 'Mohammerah: situation. British assurances to Sheikh.' [‎143r] (290/416), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/10/132, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 23 July 2024]

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