'File 73/7 IV (D 25) Anglo-Turkish Negotiations' [34r] (77/103)
The record is made up of 1 file (42 folios). It was created in 3 Aug 1913-30 Nov 1913. It was written in English, French and Arabic. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.
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8. I now beg to turn to my dealings with the Sheikh of Koweit.
Captain Shakespear and I interviewed him at Failiyeh on the Gth July, Sheikh
Khazal being* also present. I took up the thread with Sheikh Mubarak from the point
where the political agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. had left it as reported in my telegram dated the -7th Alay.
A translation of the articles of the convention dealing with Koweit, including the
extradition clause, as framed in the Secretary of State's telegram of the 1 7th June
alternative (2) was read to him. He demurred somewhat at the excision of Umm Kasr
and Bafwan, but had apparently resigned himself to their loss, and as regards the rest
of the. boundary he acquiesced in it practically without remark.
In the remainder of the Koweit articles there were three points on which he had
something to say :—
(1.) The clause in article (2), providing for the location of a Turkish agent at
Koweit. i >»
(2.) The use of the word ''khalaf" ("successor "), and not " aolad —sons, m
article 2. _ _ ^ • • i o
(3.) The clause providing for the establishment of customs offices in article 8.
It was item (1) with which the discussion which followed was mainly concerned, but
it will be more convenient to dispose of (2) and (3) first.
9. As regards the question of terminology in (2), I was not positive off-hand what
the Arabic word used in previous engagements with him was, but, without pursuing
that point, it was explained to him that, as the Turks had expressly undertaken not to
interfere in the succession, it seemed of little consequence whether this particular
convention used the word "successor" or some other cognate expression, as the question
was one which rested between himself and us alone. Without the Arabic text it ^as
difficult to say more on this point than what I have recorded above; but it is refeired
to in the Sheikh's letter to me and my reply. It will be found that in the Shweikh
Agreement the word " sons" ("aolad") was not used as the Sheikh thought, but the
word 'Mieirs" (" warasah "), and that we managed to fence with the dynastic issue then
raised by the Sheikh. My written reply to the latter (Enclosure 4) leaves the question in
the same position as did the Shweikh Agreement, and I shall be glad to know what
further, if anything, His Majesty's Government would wish me to say to him. It
might be worth while, if Sheikh Mubarak himself wishes it, that we should offer to
> recognise his successor—presumably-his son and deputy, Sheikh Jabr in his lifetime.
This would probably set his mind at rest completely as regards his own succession, and
lead him to forget or drop all further efforts to secure a permanent dynastic guarantee.
I solicit telegraphic orders on this point.
The customs clause (3), at which he at once called a halt, brought us on to
somewhat delicate ground, but it seemed to me that the best line to take was that
the article discussed contingencies which might never take shape, so that in any case
it seemed premature to come to issue over them now. We went on to explain that, if
the railway did eventually come to Koweit, it would obviously be unreasonable for him
to expect to receive the duty or all the duty on through cargo, and that in any case a
preliminary discussion and arrangement would have to be arrived at between the I orte
and ourselves, acting in his behalf, for regulating the distribution of the duties on
through export or import cargo at Koweit in a manner fair both to himself and to
Turkey. In regard to local cargo, his rights would, of course, have to be specifically
separated or safeguarded. I expressed the personal view that this was an instance in
^ which our interests and his would be the same, and that it would be our business to see-
that he was fairly treated. Sheikh Khazal gave useful help in getting Mubarak to \ lew
this question in a sensible light. ...
10. We now come to his main objection, the clause requiring him to receive a
Turkish " commissaire" or agent in Koweit. ... . , •,
Here, to begin with, Sheikh Mubarak was bluntly uncompromising, saying that it
was one of the specific and chief features of his agreements with us that he should
refuse to receive the agent of any foreign Power, including Turkey, and that the
admission of any representative on the part of the Turkish Government in Koweit was
the one thing that lie had been always determined to resist a outrance, and had up to
now succeeded in withstanding.
Then followed a long discussion in which the case of Egypt and the argument
that the appointment was a useful indication and necessary result of the recognition
of his administrative autonomy were made the most of. Eventually he agree ,
provided that I would confirm the purport of their message in writing, to bo\\ to
the will and advice of His Majesty's Government, relying on their assurance of the
About this item
The file contains letters, telegrams, memorandums, and maps relating to Anglo-Turkish negotiations over the Baghdad Railway, the status of Kuwait, and other Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. matters. The correspondence is between Percy Cox, Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. at Bushire, William Shakespear, Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. at Kuwait, the Government of India, the India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. in London, Louis Mallet, Under-secretary of State for Near and Middle Eastern Affairs, Arthur Trevor, Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. at Bahrain, Shaikh Abdalla bin Jasim bin Thani [[Jāsim bin Muḥammad Āl Thānī], Chief of Katar [Qatar], the Government of India, Sheikh Khazal [Khaz‘al al-Ka‘bi], ruler of Mohammerah, Sheikh Mubarak al-Sabah, ruler of Kuwait, and the Foreign Office, in London.
The file contains drafts and counter-drafts of an agreement to be eventually signed by the British and the Ottoman Turks. Included is correspondence relating to Percy Cox's attempts to obtain Sheikh Khaz‘al's and Sheikh Mubarak's agreement to the draft agreement, and to concern over the status of Qatar, including the presence of the Turkish Garrison there.
Folio 27 is a list of the sons of Sheikh Jasim, the late ruler of Qatar.
- Extent and format
- 1 file (42 folios)
The file is arranged chronologically.
- Physical characteristics
Foliation: The file is foliated from the front cover to the inside back cover, using circled pencil numbers in the top-right corner of recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. pages. There is an earlier foliation system that runs through the file, using pencil numbers in the top-right corner of recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. pages, as well as the top-left corner of any verso The back of a paper sheet or leaf. pages bearing written or printed matter.The following anomalies occur: 1a, 11a.The following folios are foldouts: 19, 20, 26, 38, 42a.
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- English, French and Arabic in Latin and Arabic script View the complete information for this record
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