'File 9/4 Bahrain Reforms. Introduction of Reforms in Bahrain' [58v] (133/224)
The record is made up of 1 volume (98 folios). It was created in 30 Dec 1921-27 Jul 1924. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.
This transcription is created automatically. It may contain errors.
carrvin" them out, or even desirous of mtroducwg them. The most practeal
way of doins so would be to take over, the Government ourselves for a fame,
nominatin 0, one of Sheikh Hamad 's youngsters as Sheikh to succeed to full
powers after his education had been undertaken in India or elsewhere. I
IZlme however, that it is politically undesirable to do anyth.ng of the sort
or even to irtroduce too many British officials into the admimscration ; so I
presume the ouly thing to do is to continue to try and make bricks without
StraW 12. In conclusion, I may observe again that the Bahrein Shiah commu-
nity after years of oppression are absolutely incapable 01 doing anything for
themselves and can only petition us and whme. It they had banded together
and resisted the oppression of the Khalifah family I think they could have
done a great deal long ago. Even when they made a few demonstrations a
couple of years ago Sheikh Isa became quite alarmed and nas quite prepared to
make some concessions.
This bein 0 " the case, our task in Bahrein of bolstering up a ruling family,
which cannot" rule justly or efficiently, and of helping at the same time a
community which cannot help themselves is an extremely thankless one.
Telegram from ihe Bahreini Community, Bahrein, to the Political
Eesident in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , Bushire, dated the 15th January
Sheikh Hamad read to us a letter written to Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. that he can
do nothing. Hopeless. Trusting necessary assistance. Quickly 1 Quickly 1!
Translation of a letter presented to the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. , Bahrein, on 13th
January 1924 hy representatives of the Shiah Community of Bahrein.
After compliments, etc. —It is not hidden from Your Excellency that for
years the Arabs \Sunnis) have committed crimes against the Baharneh^ such
as murder, looting, etc., and many times we have come to you supplicating
and begging for justice between them and the oppressed, but we see no
attention from you in. the matter and for this reason the crimes of the evil
doers have increased, and this is not in conformity with your justice. Never
theless we are not hopeless of obtaining your mercy and the mercy of the
Though the Baharneh of these Islands number not less than one hundred
and sixty thousand persons, yet should only ten of these remain we will not
cease to claim our rights against those who have murdered our compatriots
without their having committed any offence. The eyes of the community are
set upon the High Government, waiting for her compassion.
In order to complete our supplication we send herewith a petition explain
ing the outrages Vi hich have occurred and the dreadful crimes of the past and
In conclusion, we beg Your Excellency to send it to the Honble
Colonel Trevor at Bushire, quickly, that he may send it to the Government o
His Majesty the King and send us a dt finite answer and issue the necessary
orders to ensure our protection and to remove oppression and obtain for ns
redress from the oppressors, as we have stated in our petitions.
If, God forbid 1 Your Excellency should fail in this, or not strive in the
matter, v^e must be compelled to take more definite steps such as the despatca
of our leaders to the throne of His Majesty the King. You know best an
peace be upon you 1
This petition is from all the Bahreini Community. Dated 7th Jamadi al
Signed by seven headmen of the Bahrein Shiah Community-
About this item
The volume contains printed copies of Government of India confidential correspondence, relating to the Bahrain reforms. The majority of the letters contained in volume are printed copies of correspondence originally sent to the Government of India either by the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. (Lieutenant-Colonel Arthur Trevor or Acting Resident Lieutenant-Colonel Stuart Knox), or the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. at Bahrain (Major Clive Daly). Much of the correspondence featured in the volume can be found in the original (or as office copies) in a number of files in the two Bahrain Agency An office of the British Government and, earlier, of the East India Company. subsubseries ‘File 9 Bahrain Reforms’ (IOR/R/15/2/127-138) and ‘File 8 Miscellaneous’ (IOR/R/15/2/121-126), and the Bushire Residency A diplomatic office of the British Government established in the provinces and regions considered part of, or under the influence of, British India. subsubseries ‘File 19 Bahrain’ (IOR/R/15/1/314-77).
The printed correspondence contained in the volume covers a range of subjects:
- Events leading up to the programme of reforms carried out in Bahrain: allegations of the oppression of Bahraini subjects by members of the Āl Khalīfah family, violence, the deteriorating economic situation;
- The reforms proposed and implemented by British officials: replacement of Shaikh ‘Īsá by Shaikh Ḥamad as defacto ruler, economic reforms, judicial reforms, pearl diving industry reforms, customs house reforms;
- Specific incidents of violence involving Sunnis and Shias, or Najdis and Persians.
Some of the papers in the volume are accompanied by duplicate copies:
- Folios 61-64 are duplicates of folios 57-60;
- Folios 68-69 are duplicates of folios 66-67;
- Folios 81-84 are duplicates of folios 77-80.
- Extent and format
- 1 volume (98 folios)
The volume's contents are arranged in approximate chronological order, starting with the earliest items at the front and finishing with the latest items at the end.
- Physical characteristics
Foliation: The volume is foliated from the front cover to the inside back cover, using uncircled pencil numbers in the top-right corner of each recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. . Most of the items in the volume are printed items that have their own internal pagination systems, using printed numbers in the top-right corners of recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. pages and the top-left corners of verso The back of a paper sheet or leaf. pages, or centred at the top of both verso The back of a paper sheet or leaf. and recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. pages. The following foliation anomalies occur: 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d, 1e, 1f.
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