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File 1247/1912 Pt 1 'Turkey:- Communication to Turkish Govt of agreement between Gt. Britain and Koweit, Bahrein & Trucial Chiefs. Decorations for Sheiks of Koweit, Mohammerah & Bahrein in connection with Anglo-Turkish Convention.' [‎204r] (327/336)

The record is made up of 123 folios. It was created in 19 Oct 1896-24 Sep 1913. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers Documents collected in a private capacity. .

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Ill
Enclosure No. 7.
No. 27, dated Baghdad, the 31st January 1899 (Confidential).
From— Major P. J. Melvill, OflSciating Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in Turkish Arabia A term used by the British officials to describe the territory roughly corresponding to, but not coextensive with, modern-day Iraq under the control of the Ottoman Empire. ,
T° The Secretary to the Government of India, Foreign Department.
I have the honour to inform you that I have received, through Her
Majesty s Consul at Busrah a copy of your telegram to the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency.
in the Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. , m which I am directed to submit a report on a proposal
that (jovernment should declare a protectorate over Koweit.
. ^^ ere can, I think, be no doubt that a protectorate would be of
immense advantage to us, but I fear that this could not be done without
difficulty. I am aware that Her Majesty’s Government has never acknow-
ledgetfl Koweit to be under Turkish protection, but I am convinced that
the xorte would claim that it is so, and would resist any attempt on our part
to protect the Sheikh. Indeed, if the Turks were to hear positively that the
Sheikh was about to place himself under our protection, it is my belief
that they would promptly remove him by force. This they could easily do
for I am informed that Koweit is unprotected on the land side, and the Turks
could bring a large body of troops against it in a comparatively short time.
In this connection, I may mention that there are persistent rumours that the
garrison of Busrah is about to be increased, and it seems probable that these
rumours are not without foundation, for the status of the Busrah command has
been recently raised, a Commander-in-Chief having been posted there.
3. Although Her Majesty’s Government has never acknowledged Koweit
to be under Turkish protection, the Turks would, perhaps, have reason to protest
against another Power declaring a protectorate over the place. So long ago as
1856, though their allegiance was stated to be merely nominal and though,
apparently, they paid no tribute, the inhabitants of Koweit acknowledged the
* Bombay GoTemment Records, No. xxiv, New sovereignty of the Ottoman Porte, and
Beries, Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. , 1856, paf re 2 y 6 . used the Turkish flag* and the state of
t Gazetteer of Arabia, page 44. • , °; l .
anairs was very much the same m 1887.t
Recently the Turks have taken a considerable amount of interest in the
affairs of Koweit, and it is said that the rumoured increase in the Busrah
garrison is not unconnected with a suspicion that we wish to take Koweit
under our protection. I am informed, too (though I cannot vouch for the
accuracy of the information), that the present Sheikh now pass tribute to the
Turks. ^ J
4. As you are aware, the present Sheikh of Koweit, Mubarak, murdered
his elder brother, Muhammad Pasha An Ottoman title used after the names of certain provincial governors, high-ranking officials and military commanders. , in May 1896, and took possession of the
Sheikhship. Mubarak immediately approached the Porte with a view to
being recognised, and the heirs of Muhammad Pasha An Ottoman title used after the names of certain provincial governors, high-ranking officials and military commanders. also appealed to the
Turks. It would, therefore, appear that the people of Koweit themselves
acknowledge Turkish sovereignty, though that sovereignty may be of a
somewhat shadowy character. I enclose copies of memoranda on this subject
by the dragoman of the Busrah Consulate and by Her Majesty’s Consul, dated
the 19th October 1896 and the 12th July 1897, respectively.
MEMORANDUM.
Sheikh Mubarak who in May last killed his two brothers, Muhammad
Sheikh of Koweit. PaS, ’ a and Jerrah > ° f KoWeit - at night,
when they were in their harems, is com
municating with the Sublime Porte assuring the Sultan that his late brothers
were killed by the Bedouins when he was away from the town, and that he
(Mubarak) was one of His Imperial Majesty’s loyal subjects. He therefore
requested that he be appointed Sheikh of Koweit in the place of his brother.

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The correspondence relates to the Anglo-Turkish Convention and assistance provided by the Shaikhs of Koweit [Kuwait] and Mahommerah [Khorramshahr] in the negotiation process, which results in the decision to bestow the award of KCSI (Knight Commander of the Order of the Star of India) on both Shaikhs.

Also discussed are:

  • the negotiations between the Ottoman Government and the Bagdad Railway Company;
  • a request by the Turkish Government for copies of agreements and conventions made by the British Government with Koweit, Bahrein [Bahrain] and the Trucial Chiefs;
  • the decision to also bestow honours of a CSI (Companion of the Order of the Star of India) on Shaikh of Bahrein and CIE (Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire) on Haji Rais, trusted confident and adviser to the Shaikh of Mahommerah.

The principal correspondents include the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs (Sir Edward Grey), the Secretary of State for India (Viscount Morley of Blackburn, Lord George F Hamilton, and Lord Crewe), the Viceroy of India (Lord Curzon, Earl of Minto), the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. (Percy Zachariah Cox), the Foreign Secretary to the Government of India (Arthur Henry McMahon), and representatives of the Foreign Office.

Extent and format
123 folios
Physical characteristics

Foliation: The foliation sequence for this description commences at f 86, and terminates at f 208, as part of a larger physical volume; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio.

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File 1247/1912 Pt 1 'Turkey:- Communication to Turkish Govt of agreement between Gt. Britain and Koweit, Bahrein & Trucial Chiefs. Decorations for Sheiks of Koweit, Mohammerah & Bahrein in connection with Anglo-Turkish Convention.' [‎204r] (327/336), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/10/262/1, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100026446595.0x00000d> [accessed 18 June 2024]

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