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'File 3/8 Affairs of Sh. Khaz`als sons.' [‎134v] (268/508)

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The record is made up of 1 file (252 folios). It was created in 15 Mar 1942-17 Aug 1948. It was written in English and Arabic. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers Documents collected in a private capacity. .


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S* .ARABISTAN with the exception of the Persian owned JARRAKI estates.
His influence ultimately extended as far north as DISFLfL and his relat
ions with the Governcr General of ARABISTAN whose seat was in f .at town
were often strained,
6, The British established friendly relations with the Shaikh in
the early years of the century in the same way as with MUBARAK ibn SABAK
of KUV/'AIT who was at that time trying to free himself from Ottoman domi
nation, This friendship became: of importance when in 1909 the Anglo-
Persian Oil Company was founded with the blessing of the British Govern
ment, Land for the pipe line and for the ABADAN refinery was acquired
from the Shaikh who was perfectly well aware of the danger of what he was
doing. He pointed out that as the oil interest grew in importance it
would provide an irresistible temptation to the Persian Gov' -nment to re
establish their direct authority in the area, and such a course of events
would be fatal to him and detestable for his Arab subjects. He therefore
agreed only on cond ion that he received guarantees of British support
against Persian encroachment and this support Sir Percy COX, then Politi
cal Resident at BUSH IRE, was authorised by the Government of India to
provide, and was incorporated in a letter (not accessible to this office)
dated October 1910,
7, In October 191A after the outbreak of hostilities between Turkey
and the Allies had been formally declared. Col. KNOX, British Resident in
the Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. , wrote a letter to the Shaikh (appendix *B*) calling upon
him to concert with the Shaikh of KUwAH? end ’AID ul ’AXIS ibn SA’UD in an
attack on BASRA in conjunction with ourselves. In return for Ms support
he was in his turn promised "all necessary assistance for the settlement
of any problem which may in future arise between yourself and the Persian
Government on account of any aggression or encroachment by the said Govern
ment on your Government or your recognised rights or your property or lands
situated in Persia, This premise will hold good notwithstanding any change
of Government in Persia and regardless of whether the Government of Persia
shall be autocratic or constitutional in form", T"n promise apprise
equally to the Shaikh's heirs, and was dependent upon the following of
British advice as to the course-to be pursued in any given circumstances,
and as to the appointment of a successor. On 21 November 1914 this was
followed by a further letter from Sir Percy COX, again British Resident in
the Gulf (Appendix ’ C') making the same promises in regard to service
already rendered and adding the further promise that the Shaikh’s date
gardens on the Turkish bank of the SHATT al ’ARAB should remain in his and
hia heir’s possession free of all taxes. In the same year Shaikh KHAZ’AL
was invested with th 3 K.C.S.I. On 18th November 1914 the Marquess of
Crewe (Secretary of State for India) speaking in the House of Lords
referred to him as "our Ally the Shaikh of HOHAMMERAH, Y/ho i as we know
under Persian suzeram.ty but who is on special terms of intimacy with the
British Government".
8 , In 1915 the Turks proclaimed the Jihad, and most of Shaikh
KHAZ’AL^ subject tribes siesed the opportunity to throw off his yoke in
the name of the Caliph, The MUHAISIN however stood by their chief, and
in addition to lending us 1,000 (not very dependable) troops in February,
he sent his forces against the BAWIYA who had cut the pipeline, and in
June against the FALLAHIXA CHA’B* His friendship was thus of great
assistance to us in protecting our rear during the early stages of the
Mesopotamian campaign and in 1916 he was rev/a rded v/ith the G.C.I.E. At
the conclusion of hostilities he was even considered as a possible candi
date for the throne of Iraq.
9* Shaikh KHAZ ! AL v/as an oppressive ruler, feared and hated by
most of those over whom M neid sway, as is sufficiently shown by Me
disloyalty of his tribes when the Turks proclaimed the Jihad. The BaHI
TURUF and the BANI LAM in particular Y/ere never reconciled to his control,
and his success in collecting taxes together with his practice c
.... undermining/-

About this item


This file relates to the heirs of Shaikh Khaz‘al [Khaz‘al bin Jabir bin Merdaw Āl Ka‘bī], the late Arab Shaikh of Mohommerah [Khorramshahr], and their requests for British assistance.

The first few items of correspondence concern Shaikh Khaz‘al's eldest son, Shaikh Chassib bin Khaz‘al [Shaikh Chassib bin Khaz‘al Āl Ka‘bī], who is now living in Iraq and who is reported to have requested permission from the British Embassy at Baghdad to enter Iran (most of the correspondence in this file refers to Iran as Persia), for the purpose of personally pressing his claims to property belonging to his father, which had been sequestered by the late Shah [Reza Shah Pahlavi].

The remainder of the file relates to Shaikh Chassib's brother, Shaikh Abdullah bin Khaz‘al [Shaikh ‘Abdullāh bin Khaz‘al Āl Ka‘bī], and his wish to return to live in Persia, apparently peacefully, which is treated with suspicion by British officials. Much of the correspondence discusses whether Shaikh Abdullah, who has taken refuge in Kuwait after an unsuccessful attempt to return to live in Persia, should be given a British pension or an allowance, in order to prevent him from attempting to return to Persia, since it is deemed unlikely that he will receive any compensation from the Persian Government for the loss of his father's property.

Also included in the file are a copy of a document from the Combined Intelligence Centre, Iraq, entitled 'The Sheikhdom of Mohammerah A Short History' and a Foreign Office report entitled 'British Relations with Khazal, Sheikh of Mohammerah'.

The principal correspondents are the following: the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. , Kuwait; the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. ; the British Consul, Khorramshahr; the India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. ; the Secretary of State for India; the Foreign Office; His Majesty's Ambassador, Tehran; His Majesty's Ambassador, Baghdad; the Ruler of Kuwait, Shaikh Ahmed al Jabir As-Subah [Shaikh Aḥmad al-Jābir Āl Ṣabāḥ]; Shaikh Abdullah bin Khaz‘al.

Extent and format
1 file (252 folios)

The papers are arranged in chronological order from the front to the rear of the file. Circled serial numbers (red for received correspondence; blue/black for issued correspondence) refer to entries in the notes at the rear of the volume.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the main foliation sequence (used for referencing) commences at the front cover with 1, and terminates at the inside back cover with 254; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio. Additional foliation sequences, one of which is written in pencil and not circled (between ff 3-131 and ff 143-224), and one of which is written in pencil and circled (between ff 1-253), have been superseded and therefore crossed out.

Written in
English and Arabic in Latin and Arabic script
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'File 3/8 Affairs of Sh. Khaz`als sons.' [‎134v] (268/508), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/R/15/5/178, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 21 June 2024]

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