Skip to item: of 508
Information about this record Back to top
Open in Universal viewer
Open in Mirador IIIF viewer

'File 3/8 Affairs of Sh. Khaz`als sons.' [‎135r] (269/508)

This item is part of

The record is made up of 1 file (252 folios). It was created in 15 Mar 1942-17 Aug 1948. It was written in English and Arabic. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers Documents collected in a private capacity. .


This transcription is created automatically. It may contain errors.

Apply page layout

.... simultaneously/-
undermining the power of subject Shaikhs ensured him many enemies, lie
maintained too the ancient Persian ^raoticc of blinding inport^rit
persons whom he considered treacherous to him. His relations with the
BAKHT1AEI Khans, his northern neighbours, though regulated by^a treaty
of friendship, were soured by ancient hatreds. Nevertheless his great
wealth and the shadow of British support were sufficient to ensure him
immense power.
•jO, At this point it is necessary to note that in the early days
of the War the Government of India envisaged that BASRa would bo
retained as a part of the British Empire. There could be no reason for
returning it to the Turks and an independent Iraq was srill undreamed^or.
Our relations with Persia were governed by the Anglo-Russian ^gr-eemen^
of 1^07 and in this framework our engagements to ohe Sheika ox
were as reasonable as those which still govern our relations vata cne
Shaikh of Kuwait. However the establishment of cho mandate m Iraq, a^a
the sacrifice of Lori CUPEON’s idiglo-Persian treaty to American and French
pressure at the time of the Peace conference left oar agreement wiich^
Shaikh KMiiZ’/iL completely in the air. But the oJd relaoions.ap subsisted,
and the Military Handbook of 1924 states bluntly ^hot the Enai^n has
always been consistently friendly towards the British and now^in his ola
age depends on British advice to a far greater extern: -chan before. That
veiy year was to see our uncoordinated policies ere te for us a situation
of the most painful, embarrassment*
11. The tot to sang constitutional government of SULTii, idfuD Shah
was in 1921 in the hands of Seyyid ZIA ud DIN TABATAB/il (the same v/ho
was recently taken nto rt pimtect:: vo custody" on the orders of QA.VM es
SULTi'iNEH) and this politician opened up negotiations with the Cossack
Brigade of the Persian Army, at that time recuperating behind British
lines from defeat at the hands of the Bolsheviks. As a result of these
negotiations the Brigade under its General REZA Khan marched on TEHRAN,
and a new government was installed with REZA as Minister ox War. Seyyi
ZIA soon withdrew, and in 1923 the Shah followed him apprehensively to
Europe on what was to prove his final exile. In Octooer of the same year
REZA took over the office of prime Minister and addressed himself with
renewed energy to the reduction of insubordinate provincial powers. The
Persian army at that time, thought not outstanding, was a voluntary force
with a leavening of foroign trained troops from the Cossack Brigade and
the South Persia Rifles, and he achieved considerable success. The
Shaikhdom of MOH/dMERAH with its profits for guarding the oil installat
ions and its pretensions to British support was particularly tempting to
the nationalist leader and its turn was not long in coming. The incidents
which follow aro in a sense the crux of this summary and are therefore
given in some detail.
12. In the summer of 1922 a detachment of Persian troops moving
from ISPAHAN to AHvTAZ was attacked, defeated ana driven wi on heavy Toss
of equipment back on to its base by a party of KITIGALU tribesmen. The
Soviet Embassy (then for a variety of reasons unfriendly to Great
Britain and basking in the sun of self righteousness after the nusso- ^
Persian treaty of 1921) gave the lead in a campaign of propaganda to she
effect that this incident had been engineered by the British to prevent
the Persian Government from xnroute-ing with existing arrangements bet
ween ourselves and the- Shaikh of MORAL ER Ji and the jjiiKHTT r.T Khans.
The Russians contin - to direct propaganda against Brioi uterference
in Persian affairs and did all in their power to prevent Khan trom
discussing the sit 11 " -ion in ARABIST AN with us ac all, while encouraging
the TEHRAN press in every possible attack on us. It was against this
background that the svenue cAxmu tc se were oixi-olded-.
13, REZA IGian moved with extreme deliberation. In February 1923
he* transferred ARABISTAN from the ISFAHAN to the HAMAD AN divisional area,
thus enabling movements of troops to be made into the province without

About this item


This file relates to the heirs of Shaikh Khaz‘al [Khaz‘al bin Jabir bin Merdaw Āl Ka‘bī], the late Arab Shaikh of Mohommerah [Khorramshahr], and their requests for British assistance.

The first few items of correspondence concern Shaikh Khaz‘al's eldest son, Shaikh Chassib bin Khaz‘al [Shaikh Chassib bin Khaz‘al Āl Ka‘bī], who is now living in Iraq and who is reported to have requested permission from the British Embassy at Baghdad to enter Iran (most of the correspondence in this file refers to Iran as Persia), for the purpose of personally pressing his claims to property belonging to his father, which had been sequestered by the late Shah [Reza Shah Pahlavi].

The remainder of the file relates to Shaikh Chassib's brother, Shaikh Abdullah bin Khaz‘al [Shaikh ‘Abdullāh bin Khaz‘al Āl Ka‘bī], and his wish to return to live in Persia, apparently peacefully, which is treated with suspicion by British officials. Much of the correspondence discusses whether Shaikh Abdullah, who has taken refuge in Kuwait after an unsuccessful attempt to return to live in Persia, should be given a British pension or an allowance, in order to prevent him from attempting to return to Persia, since it is deemed unlikely that he will receive any compensation from the Persian Government for the loss of his father's property.

Also included in the file are a copy of a document from the Combined Intelligence Centre, Iraq, entitled 'The Sheikhdom of Mohammerah A Short History' and a Foreign Office report entitled 'British Relations with Khazal, Sheikh of Mohammerah'.

The principal correspondents are the following: the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. , Kuwait; the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf The historical term used to describe the body of water between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. ; the British Consul, Khorramshahr; the India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. ; the Secretary of State for India; the Foreign Office; His Majesty's Ambassador, Tehran; His Majesty's Ambassador, Baghdad; the Ruler of Kuwait, Shaikh Ahmed al Jabir As-Subah [Shaikh Aḥmad al-Jābir Āl Ṣabāḥ]; Shaikh Abdullah bin Khaz‘al.

Extent and format
1 file (252 folios)

The papers are arranged in chronological order from the front to the rear of the file. Circled serial numbers (red for received correspondence; blue/black for issued correspondence) refer to entries in the notes at the rear of the volume.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the main foliation sequence (used for referencing) commences at the front cover with 1, and terminates at the inside back cover with 254; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio. Additional foliation sequences, one of which is written in pencil and not circled (between ff 3-131 and ff 143-224), and one of which is written in pencil and circled (between ff 1-253), have been superseded and therefore crossed out.

Written in
English and Arabic in Latin and Arabic script
View the complete information for this record

Use and share this item

Share this item
Cite this item in your research

'File 3/8 Affairs of Sh. Khaz`als sons.' [‎135r] (269/508), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/R/15/5/178, in Qatar Digital Library <> [accessed 17 June 2024]

Link to this item
Embed this item

Copy and paste the code below into your web page where you would like to embed the image.

<meta charset="utf-8"><a href="">'File 3/8 Affairs of Sh. Khaz`als sons.' [&lrm;135r] (269/508)</a>
<a href="">
	<img src="!280,240/0/default.jpg" alt="" />
IIIF details

This record has a IIIF manifest available as follows. If you have a compatible viewer you can drag the icon to load it. in Universal viewerOpen in Mirador viewerMore options for embedding images

Use and reuse
Download this image