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Coll 6/84 'Yemen: Attitude of Yemeni Govt. towards the Italo-Ethiopian dispute. Policy of H.M.G. in event of Italian occupation of Yemeni territory.' [‎282v] (564/699)

The record is made up of 1 file (348 folios). It was created in 22 Mar 1934-1 Nov 1939. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

Transcription

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2
Article 3.
The subjects of the Empire of Ethiopia and the Kingdom of the Yemen shall
be free to enter and reside for trading purposes in the territories of the other.
The two high contracting parties agree to treat them and their trade in
accordance with the local rules and to grant them similar treatment to that
enjoyed by the subjects of the most-favoured Power.
Article 4.
The subjects of each of two high contracting parties shall in all their affairs
and business transactions be amenable to the laws and decrees of the courts in
force in the country in which they reside.
Article 5.
Each of the two high contracting parties shall in due course and in mutual
agreement establish Legations and consulates and pending the establishment of
diplomatic and consular relations, they agree that the subjects of each Govern
ment living in the territories of the other shall be given the necessary assistance
and protection.
Article 6.
By this treaty the two high contracting parties shall not allow or connive
at any action directed against their sincere friendship. They will endeavour to
be in a closer contact than hitherto in as far as assistance is concerned and in
strengthening their relations. Any agreements and treaties that may be concluded
in future shall be framed in the spirit of this treaty.
Article 7.
The treaty shall remain in force for a period of five years commencing from
the date of exchange of ratifications and shall be automatically renewed for
further period of five years if neither of the two contracting parties denounce it
six months before its expiry.
The instruments of ratifications shall be exchanged at Sana as early as
possible All previous treaties are cancelled by this treaty.
And in witness thereof the plenipotentiaries referred to above have signed
the present treaty and have thereto affixed their seals.
This treaty is done in two originals in the Amharic and Arabic languages,
and as the origin and source of both languages is identical the interpretation of
the Arabic text shall be relied upon when necessity arises.
Done at Sana in the Yemen this seventeenth day of A1 Hijja 1353
(corresponding with the 22nd March, 1935).
MUHAMMAD RAGHIB-BIN-RAEIQ.
SAHAFI-TEEZAZ (WOLDE) MASKAL.
LIJ ANDARGE MESSAI.
(Ratifications exchanged at Sana on the 23rd Jumad, Thank, 1354
(21st September, 1935).)

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Content

This file relates to Italian activities in the Middle East, particularly in the Yemen. The correspondence includes discussion of the following:

  • British policy in the event of the Italians occupying Sheikh Said [Ra’s Shaykh Sa‘īd], or any other part of the Yemen.
  • The Yemen's position in the Italo-Abyssinian conflict [Italo-Ethiopian War].
  • Relations between Ethiopia and the Yemen.
  • Italian activities in the Yemen.
  • British suspicions regarding Italian activities in the Yemen.
  • Future British policy in the Yemen.
  • Internal affairs in the Yemen.
  • Anglo-Italian relations in the Middle East, and the likelihood of Italy violating the Rome Understanding of 1927.
  • Ibn Saud's [‘Abd al-‘Azīz bin ‘Abd al-Raḥmān bin Fayṣal Āl Sa‘ūd] view on Italian activity in the region.
  • The visits of Italian destroyers to Kamaran Island in March 1937 and January 1938.
  • British and French concerns that Italy, following its denunciation of the Franco-Italian Agreement of 1935, seeks possession of the Island of Doumeira [Dumēra Desēt, Red Sea, also spelled Dumeira in the file], currently under French control.

The file features the following principal correspondents: His Majesty's Minister at Jedda (Sir Andrew Ryan, succeeded by Sir Reader William Bullard); the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. , Aden (Sir Bernard Rawdon Reilly); the Governor of Aden (Reilly again); the High Commissioner, Cairo (Sir Miles Lampson); His Majesty's Ambassador in Cairo (Lampson again); His Majesty's Chargé d'Affaires, Alexandria (John Cecil Sterndale Bennett); His Majesty's Ambassador in Paris (Eric Phipps); His Majesty's Ambassador in Rome (Eric Drummond); the British Consul General, Jibuti [Djibouti] (Herbert George Jakins); the British Naval Commander-in-Chief, East Indies Station (Vice-Admiral Alexander Robert Maule Ramsay); the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs (Anthony Eden); the Secretary of State for the Colonies (James Henry Thomas, succeeded by William George Arthur Ormsby-Gore); officials of the Foreign Office, the Colonial Office, and the Air Ministry.

In addition to correspondence, the file includes the following: copies of extracts from Aden political intelligence summaries; copies of the minutes of meetings of the Committee of Imperial Defence's Standing Official Sub-Committee for Questions Concerning the Middle East, dated 26 November 1935, 14 December 1936, and 8 June 1937 respectively; a copy of a translation of a treaty of friendship and commerce between the Ethiopian and Yemeni governments, which was ratified on 21 September 1935.

The file includes a divider which gives a list of correspondence references contained in the file by year. This is placed at the back of the correspondence (folios 2).

Extent and format
1 file (348 folios)
Arrangement

The papers are arranged in approximate chronological order from the rear to the front of the file.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence (used for referencing) commences at the inside front cover with 1, and terminates at the last folio with 349; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio. A previous foliation sequence, which is also circled, has been superseded and therefore crossed out.

Written in
English in Latin script
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Coll 6/84 'Yemen: Attitude of Yemeni Govt. towards the Italo-Ethiopian dispute. Policy of H.M.G. in event of Italian occupation of Yemeni territory.' [‎282v] (564/699), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/12/2157, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100041685367.0x0000a7> [accessed 26 February 2020]

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