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File 3516/1914 Pt 18 'German War: Persia; general situation - 1916' [‎57r] (122/368)

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The record is made up of 1 volume (175 folios). It was created in 17 Nov 1915-18 Feb 1916. It was written in English and French. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

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5
[ 57 )
there. They had met and dined with Angmann at Sivend the night of the
Shiraz affair. He apparently knew what was going on in Shiraz and was
recalled that night (I will get more details about tins). ^ te ? w ^J ds v
Mrs, Christmas was at Shiraz Angmann told her that he had had Mackertic
shot one hour after his arrival in Shiraz for “ treachery to the Gendarmerie .
O She adds that Samadagha Russian subject or prote-e of Shiraz was forced
to pay Tumans 20,000. She confirms information regarding II. Malcolm and
says Zeytoon w r as let off being fined on his explaining that he was not a I3n is i
subject.
Hr. Azzopardy and Mrs. Christmas were told they were free but were,
in spite of this, brought dow r n to Ahram, but were well treated and had a
comfortable journey.
Mrs Christmas spent 2 days at Ahram with prisoners and says they are
well treated and as comfortable as circumstances will permit (which is not
much) and all w r ell except O’Connor who is not very fit. M assmuss was
there and was very polite.
Addressed Tehran, repeated Basrah and India (by post).
Enclo. 3 to Serial No. 253.
No. Cf.-439, dated Bushire, the 13th December 1915.
;p rom —Major A. P Trevor, C.I.E., Deputy Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. , Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. ,
To—The Secretary to the Government of Bombay, Political Department, Bombay.
I have the honour to forw r ard herewith a copy (together with a translation)
of a letter from Herr Wassmuss to Doctor Listemann, lately German Consul at
Bushire, and now interned at Ahmednagar I understand.
It will probably be within your knowledge that Herr M assmuss who had
been acting German Consul at Bushire, returned to Germany just before the
war began. The war broke out before he got home, and I understand the ship
he was°on was detained a short time at Port Said, but he was able to get
through to Germany wdth the German Consular Officials from Egypt. Aitei
a short stay in Berlin he was sent out to the East vid Constantinople and
Baghdad in charge of a special mission to excite enmity and hatred against the
British in Persia, Afghanistan and India, and if possible work up the Muham
madan Clergy to preach jehad. He brought with him two or three Indian
seditionists and a lot of seditious literature and pamphlets m the principal
Indian languages. He arrived in Arabistan via Pusht-i-Kuh at the beginning
of the year and as he was obviously violaiing the neutrality of 1 ersia and no
steps w r ere taken by the Persian Government to stop him an attempt was mac e
to arrest him, this failed but his Doctor—the Dr. Linders alluded to m t e
letter—was arrested and the papers, etc , with the mission seized.
Subsequently Wassmuss turned his attention to stirring up the tribes
in the hinterland to attack Bushire, and since May last has devoted almost
the whole of his energies, expended large sums of money, and distributed
large quantities of arms and ammunition with this object. He has, as is
wefl known, achieved considerable success.
He has now got wdiat he considers a trump card in the shape of the
British Consul and Colony from Shiraz who were arrested on the 10th
November by the Gendarmerie, wdio had long been rabidly pro-German anc
now, having apparently heard that the Persian Government was swinging to
the side of the Allies, have openly declared with the Germans and revolted
against their own Government. The Shiraz Colony consisting of A ajor
O’Connor, C.I.E., the Consul, and seven men are now at Ahram in dan gist an
in charge of Herr Wassmuss and two local Khans Zair Khidhar and Shaikh
Husaim These persons wish to use their captives either to exchange with
Germans and Persians arrested on Persian soil, or at least as a means ot
getting concessions a, to the treatment of the latter. With these preliminary
remarks, for the length of which I apologize, especially as much of this is
ancient history, I come to Herr Wassmuss’ actual letter. It js misleading in
many respects and should, in my opinion, be censored before delivery.

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Content

The volume concerns the situation in Persia during the First World War. The main focus is the Persian protests against violation of their country's neutrality, British and Russian responses to Persian nationalism, and their attempts to influence the Shah and the Majlis deputies during the events that happened in November 1915.

The volume covers:

  • Advance of Russian troops on Kashan and Tehran.
  • Situation at Kermanshah between August and November 1915.
  • Dismissal of Swedish Commandment of Gendarmerie.
  • Persian Gendarmerie.
  • Arrest of the British Consul at Shiraz by Le Comité National pour la protection de l'Indépendance Persane in November 1915.
  • German and Turkish interests.
  • United States Minister at Tehran's attitude.
  • 'Report on the seizure of the Shiraz Colony' (ff 130-132).
  • Terms proposed by Khans for release of British prisoners at Shiraz.
  • Situation in Bushire.
  • British Consulate at Bunder Abbas moved to Kerman.
  • Kerman branch of Imperial Bank of Persia reported to have been looted.
  • Russian operations on the Caucasian and Persian fronts.
  • Report of Vice Consul on the evacuation of Hamadan.
  • Prisoners at Bushire and Shiraz.
  • Intercepted letter from Wilhelm Wassmuss to Helmuth Listemann, regarding British prisoners at Bushire.
  • Events in the provinces.
  • Capture of Turkish Ambassador at Tehran by the Russians.

The volume’s principal correspondents are: Charles Marling, British Minister at Tehran; Esme Howard, British Ambassador to Sweden; Bertie of Thame, British Ambassador to Italy; Mohtashem-es-Sultaneh, Persian Commissioner on the Turco-Persian Frontier; Alfred Hamilton Grant, Foreign Secretary to the Government of India; Percy Cox, Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. ; Arthur Prescott Trevor, Deputy Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. ; British Consuls at Yazd, Kerman (C T Ducat), Sistan and Kain (Francis Beville Pridaux), Batoum (P Stevens), Hamadan (N Patrick Cowan), Shiraz (William Frederick Trevors O'Connor) ; American Minister at Tehran; Arthur Hirtzel, India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. ; Edward Grey, Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs; Shaikh Hussein of Chahkutah; Imperial Bank of Persia.

There is a document in French, an ultimatum addressed to the British Consul at Shiraz by Le Comité National pour la protection de l'Indépendance Persane. There are newspaper extracts, from Jam-e Jam', Tazineh, Tiflisky Listok, and Hayat.

Extent and format
1 volume (175 folios)
Arrangement

The papers are arranged in approximate chronological order from the rear to the front of the volume.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence (used for referencing) commences at the first folio with 1 and terminates at the last folio with 175; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio. The foliation sequence does not include the front and back covers, nor does it include the leading and ending flyleaves.

Written in
English and French in Latin script
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File 3516/1914 Pt 18 'German War: Persia; general situation - 1916' [‎57r] (122/368), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/10/493, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100044734590.0x00007b> [accessed 9 December 2019]

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