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Coll 6/67(3) 'Boundaries of South Eastern Arabia and Qatar.' [‎358v] (723/830)

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The record is made up of 1 volume (411 folios). It was created in 7 Feb 1935-20 Dec 1935. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

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FUAD BEY replied that King Abdul Aziz did, indeed, wish to stop
smuggling, but also had an eye to the possibilities of the future. He knew that
the King felt strongly that he must have an outlet to the sea in this direction.
Mr. WARD and Mr. MALCOLM explained that, according to the informa
tion in the possession of His Majesty’s Government, the Khor-al-Odeid was, in
fact, extremely shallow and practically useless as a harbour. Fuad Bey did not.
however, pursue this point.
Mr. RENDEL explained to Fuad Bey that he saw no prospect of His
Majesty’s Government being able to modify their attitude on this part of the line.
In the first place, they were committed to" the recognition of the Sheikh of Abu
Dhabi’s claim to the whole of the Khor-al-Odeid, having told the Sheikh of Abu
Dhabi, to whom they were bound by treaty, that they regarded his territory as
extending round the Khor and up to the north-eastern point of the mouth of the
Khor. They could not give away the sheikh’s territory. His Majesty’s Govern
ment could not violate or disregard their obligations to these Trucial rulers, even
when these obligations involved them in difficulties with other Powers. The same
situation had arisen in regard to certain islands belonging to the Jowasimi Arab
rulers which were claimed by Persia, where His Majesty’s Government had been
obliged firmly to resist the Persian claims. For the same reason His Maiesty’s
Government could not admit any Saudi claim to the Sheikh of Abu Dhabi
territory round the Khor-al-Odeid.
, But apart from this, as Fuad Bey was aware, His Majesty’s Government
had long had a very strong interest in the whole stretch of the Arab coast of the
Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. from Qatar to Muscat. The Sheikhdoms of Qatar, Abu Dhabi &e
formed a chain of States with which His Majesty’s Government had had special
relations for a very long period, ever since the days when they had been obliged
to assume a certain measure of control in this area in order to stop piracy gun-
running and the slave trade. The maintenance of this measure of British control
ivas an important principle of British policy in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. . It had made
Otw Powr^ 1 A'hrk Jf ; S ^/ Gov : era ' nen ‘ firmly to resist any attempts by any
farLce wltl tblA 1S , lts . elf .^ Trucial Coast The historic term used by the British to refer to the Gulf coast of Trucial Oman, now called United Arab Emirates. > and would be at complete
Dowerfnl State an ]!' 0 "i His Majesty s Government to acquiesce in any
coast Moreover Tt h w S SaUdl Arabla " acquiring a new outlet to the sea on this
on the TmeLTrnastTh tk pn n clple r 0f l the P ° lic - V of His Majesty’s Government
“tar XS
by UedgeoflaudT territory. They n ° W aglee t0 their being se P arated
thatKAUduIkUweUtooht'U Ml ' « end el’s argument and pointed out
Qatar woufd tcome entiX dependent"! 0 ^ I? f 6 ^ at Khor-al-Odeid,
if not L theory, to the Xnden^ £ ^
British handbook on'Trabiahsmied at’thTth t0 Ttl^p 1 ^af be had seen in a
a statement to the effect that Qatar holo 'i , ■ <1 tbe Paris Peace Conference,
out in reply that thflkeifn g f ed y. Kln g AMM Aziz. It was pointed
no more accurate or author?tative tn.y'' arru ! al with this statement, which was
hurriedly prepared ofTferen o ^7 0t ^ sh P s which b ad crept into such
. FuadVy evenTraUrLThrd C Xf h TUaSd dl re Ve b'
point of view of His Maiestv’s GnvArm^orvf f 6 ieallse . ( i. the objections from the
Khor-al-Odeid. He did not" however r° 1 ^ co ^ aism g the Saudi claim to the
took the line that the discussion had ' V abandon the Saudi claim, and
in regard to the northern end of the line ^ existence of a complete deadlock
m 0 dify?n^keir^ttitiM^ a ^bout a the e iiim W bet > f ^ Government
he thought that the sector of the W f, the l ea and Bana iyan, though
open to further discussion He made an 1° ■ S ° Uth ,° f Banai y a “ might be
to reconsider his attitude towards the nrnnn to -^ ua h Bey, however,
had made. The present pSn was tha?wh rU 1 ! ^ Government
think about the validity or otherwise of the existing^!rentier, ^ing^bdu/'Az^z

About this item

Content

This volume primarily concerns British policy regarding the south-eastern boundaries of Saudi Arabia, specifically those bordering Qatar, the Trucial Shaikhdoms, Muscat, the Hadramaut and the Aden Protectorate.

It includes interdepartmental discussion regarding the approach that the British Government should take in reaching a settlement with King Ibn Saud [‘Abd al-‘Azīz bin ‘Abd al-Raḥmān bin Fayṣal Āl Sa‘ūd] over the demarcation of the boundaries.

References are made to various existing and proposed lines, including the 'blue line' and the 'violet line' – boundary lines that formed part of the Anglo-Ottoman Conventions, concluded in 1913 and 1914 respectively, a 'green line' and a 'brown line', which represent more recent territorial concessions proposed by the British to Ibn Saud, and a 'red line', which is referred to as the Saudi Government's claim for its country's south-eastern boundary.

The volume features the following principal correspondents: the Political Resident A senior ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul General) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Residency. in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. (Lieutenant-Colonel Trenchard Craven William Fowle); the Political Agent A mid-ranking political representative (equivalent to a Consul) from the diplomatic corps of the Government of India or one of its subordinate provincial governments, in charge of a Political Agency. , Bahrain (Lieutenant-Colonel Percy Gordon Loch); His Majesty's Minister at Jedda (Sir Andrew Ryan); the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs (Sir Samuel Hoare); the Acting Chief Commissioner, Aden (Lieutenant-Colonel Morice Challoner Lake); officials of the Colonial Office, the Foreign Office, the India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. , the Government of India's Foreign and Political Department.

The correspondence includes discussion of the following:

  • The extent of territory that the British should be prepared to include in any concession made to Ibn Saud.
  • The abandonment of the idea of a proposed 'desert zone'.
  • The future of the Treaty of Jedda of 1927.
  • Meetings held at the Foreign Office with Fuad Bey Hamza, Deputy Saudi Minister for Foreign Affairs, and Hafiz Wahba, Saudi Arabian Minister in London, during June and July 1935.
  • The eastern boundary of the Aden Protectorate.
  • The possibility of the British Government employing Bertram Thomas to carry out enquiries and investigations regarding the question of Saudi Arabia's south-eastern frontiers.
  • Wells and territories of the Al Murra [Āl Murrah] tribe.
  • Preparations for Sir Andrew Ryan's forthcoming visit to Riyadh for negotiations with Ibn Saud.
  • Abu Dhabi's claim to Khor-al-Odeid [Khawr al ‘Udayd].
  • Details of a British aerial reconnaissance of the Qatar Peninsula, which took place on 11 October 1935.

In addition to correspondence the volume includes the following: copies of the minutes of meetings of the Committee of Imperial Defence's Standing Ministerial and Official Sub-Committee for Questions Concerning the Middle East, dated 15 April 1935 and 24 September 1935 respectively; photographs of the Qatar Peninsula, taken during the aforementioned aerial reconnaissance; a map showing the route of the aerial reconnaissance.

The volume includes a divider which gives a list of correspondence references contained in the volume by year. This is placed at the back of the correspondence (folio 4).

Extent and format
1 volume (411 folios)
Arrangement

The papers are arranged in approximate chronological order from the rear to the front of the volume.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence (used for referencing) commences at the first folio with 1 and terminates at the last folio with 411; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio. The foliation sequence does not include the front and back covers.

Written in
English in Latin script
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Coll 6/67(3) 'Boundaries of South Eastern Arabia and Qatar.' [‎358v] (723/830), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, IOR/L/PS/12/2136, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100046787907.0x00007c> [accessed 26 January 2020]

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