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'PRINCIPAL DESPATCHES AND CORRESPONDENCE RELATING TO PERSIA CONNECTED WITH THE SUMMARY OF EVENTS AND MEASURES OF VICEROYALTY OF HIS EXCELLENCY LORD CURZON OF KEDDLESTON IN THE FOREIGN DEPARTMENT. JANUARY 1899 TO NOVEMBER 1905. VOLUME IV-PART IV. PERSIA.' [‎23r] (50/136)

The record is made up of 1 volume (64 folios). It was created in 1908. It was written in English. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

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or over 80 per cent of the entire External trade. In the same three years,
out of a total of 2,161 steamers which entered and cleared from the Gnlf ports,
2,039 were British, and their tonnage represented 84 per cent of the total tonnage.
If the returns of Persian ports alone be required, the figures are Total trade,
£11,172,000, of which Local trade = £2,169,400 and External trade =
£9,002,600, the British proportion of the latter being £7,494,200, or 83 per
cent. To these totals in either case there should, in our opinion, certainly be
added those of Basrah, which amounted in the same triennial period to
£2,157,300. Unfortunately the manner in which these have been prepared, do
not admit of our distinguishing the countries of origin or destination. The pro
portion, however, that should properly be assigned to Anglo-Indian commerce
may he inferred from the British percentage of shipping, that entered or cleared
from that port in the three years referred to. It amounted to no less than 93 per
cent both of the number and tonnage of the steamers engaged.
26. During the last thirty years the maintenance of the sub-marine cables of
the Indo-European Telegraph Company from Eao to Jask, and of the land lines
from that place to Karachi, has also devolved upon the Indian Government, and
has tended to increase an already preponderant influence over both the waters
and the shores of this sea. Latterly there has been a deliberate but necessary con
solidation of our influence in certain quarters where trouble threatened or where
rivalry was feared. At the north-west extremity of the Gulf, we have, under
instructions from Her Majesty’s Government, entered into engagements with the
still independent Sheikh of Koweit, by which he has bound himself and his
successors not to receive the representative of any other Power and not to
alienate any portion of his territory to the Government or subjects of any other
Power—a proceeding which was dictated by the increasing encroachment of
Turkish authority and by the incipient intrigues of other Powers. Similar
machinations are known to be in progress at Bahrein, and will require to be
counteracted by a more strict enforcement of the conditions to which the Sheikh
is by treaty bound. Outside the entrance to the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. , but included
within the sphere of its political influence, the Arab State of Maskat has for
years been controlled by British influence; its trade is similarly in Anglo-
Indian hands; and its ruler has not merely for years been subsidised by the
Government of India, but in 1891 entered into an Agreement with us, under
the orders of Her Majesty’s Government, not to alienate any portion of his
dominions to any other Power.
27. Such, briefly summarised, is the position that has been won by Great
Britain, not without the expenditure of many millions of money and the sacrifice
of many valuable lives, in the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. . In its vindication we have
more than once been called upon to enter into military occupation of ports or
islands in the Gulf. The island of Kharak was occupied by Indian forces from
1838 to 1842, and again in 1856-57. Bushire was held during the latter years,
as also were Mohammerah and Ahwaz upon the Karun. The occupation of
these places was an illustration of the vigour with which in past years our
ascendency has been maintained. Their abandonment was a proof of the
reluctance which has invariably been displayed to emphasise or to perpetuate
these responsibilities. The latter, however, no less than the British position in
Southern Persia in general, are now threatened by an external competition, to
the evidences of which we next turn.
28. Sir M. Durand has in general terms described the commanding posi
tion which the proximity of the Trans-Caspian Railway and of her Central Asian
garrisons, the construction of the Ashkabad-Kuchan-Meshed cart-road, and the
annual expenditure of large sums of money, have enabled Russia to take up in
the politics and commerce of the province of Khorasan. We proceed to
develop the argument by showing how the Khorasan position has been and is
being utilised as the base of a further and more southerly advance.
29. It was in 1889 that the campaign of what may be termed the Russi
fication of Khorasan was opened with the appointment of a Russian Consul-
General at Meshed. In 1891 a native trader, named Haji Agha, appeared as

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Content

Published by Superintendent Government Printing, India, Calcutta.

The volume consists of a draft Part IV to the Summary of the Principal Events and Measures of the Viceroyalty of His Excellency Lord Curzon of Keddleston, Viceroy and Governor-General of India in the Foreign Department. I. January 1899-April 1904. II. December 1904-November 1905. Volume IV. Persia and the Persian Gulf Historically used by the British to refer to the sea area between the Arabian Peninsula and Iran. Often referred to as The Gulf or the Arabian Gulf. (Parts I-III), published by GC [Government Central] Press, Simla, 1907 [Mss Eur F111/531-534].

The volume includes a letter from the Foreign Department, Government of India, to Lord Curzon, dated 27 August 1908, stating that an examination of their records had shown that these were the essential despatches, and hoping that the volume would answer Lord Curzon's purpose.

The despatches and correspondence cover the period 1899-1905, and include correspondence from the Secretary of State for India, and HBM's Minister at Tehran, and cover the question of the appointment of an additional consular officer in Persia, 1899 (with map); relations between Britain and Persia; the protection of British interests in Persia; British policy on Persia; the political and financial situation in Persia; and the threat of Russian encroachment.

Extent and format
1 volume (64 folios)
Arrangement

The despatches and correspondence are arranged in chronological order from the front to the rear of the volume. There is a list of contents on folio 6, giving details of name and date of paper, subject, and page number.

Physical characteristics

Foliation: the foliation sequence (used for referencing) commences at the inside front cover with 1, and terminates at the inside back cover with 66; these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio. Pagination: the volume also contains an original manuscript pagination sequence.

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'PRINCIPAL DESPATCHES AND CORRESPONDENCE RELATING TO PERSIA CONNECTED WITH THE SUMMARY OF EVENTS AND MEASURES OF VICEROYALTY OF HIS EXCELLENCY LORD CURZON OF KEDDLESTON IN THE FOREIGN DEPARTMENT. JANUARY 1899 TO NOVEMBER 1905. VOLUME IV-PART IV. PERSIA.' [‎23r] (50/136), British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, Mss Eur F111/535, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/archive/81055/vdc_100083163671.0x000033> [accessed 25 August 2019]

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