Miscellaneous correspondence, reports, maps and other papers concerning the Middle East [100r] (200/220)
The record is made up of 1 file (110 folios). It was created in 27 Aug 1893-19 Dec 1918. It was written in English and French. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers Documents collected in a private capacity. .
This transcription is created automatically. It may contain errors.
NOTES ON MAP 2.
1. Turco-Bulgarian Frontier .—This question is being dealt with in the series of
memoranda on the British case in relation to Southern and South-Eastern Europe. The
line shown on this map is that of the Turco-Bulgarian Treaty of 1915, and has the
merit of leaving the Dedeagatch Railway to Bulgaria and the tombs of the Sultans in
Adrianople to Turkey. Any other line must deprive either Turkey of Adrianople or
Bulgaria of access to the iEgean.
2. Frontiers of Armenia .—The suggested western frontier follows the natural line
of the Taurus Range, and is identical with the boundary between the blue and green
areas in the agreements (Nos. 11 and 12) up to a point north of Sivas. From there it is
carried northwards to Cape Yasun on the Black Sea, leaving Turkey in possession of
Samsun, which is the natural port for North and North-Central Anatolia Peninsula that forms most of modern-day Turkey. . Trebizond
and Kerasond, having a mixed Greek, Turkish and Armenian population, should be
assigned to Armenia, since they are the outlet for a great part of the Armenian interior
towards the Black Sea. There is also an ancient trade route from Trebizond across
Armenia to North-West Persia. This route will certainly regain its importance, and
it would be equitable to make 'i rebizond a free port, and to secure free transit across
the Armenian hinterland for trade with Persia.
The area marked C is the Karabagh district, and there is a large Armenian popu
lation in the mountains, which preserved its liberty against Persia in the pre-Russian
period, and has held out against the Turkish invader during the last few months. On
historical grounds it should go to Armenia, but there is also a strong Azerbaijani
element in the population, and the best permanent settlement might be to bring about
a segregation of the Armenians and Azerbaijanis into separate areas by persuading the
Karabagh Armenians to emigrate to the Erivan district and the Erivan Azerbaijanis to
Karabagh. If this were done, Area C would of course fall to Azerbaijan.
The area marked F and coloured green has a mixed Armenian, Kurdish, and Arab
popidation, and should probably be divided between the Armenian and Arab States
when the exact local conditions have been ascertained by investigation. If it were
feasible to carry a railway from Alexandretta north-eastwards through Aintab, Urfa,
and Diarbekir. it might be desirable to keep all these places on the Armenian side of
the frontier, but such a railway might be impracticable. In any case, the track of
future railways ought to be taken into consideration in settling the frontier here.
From the Euphrates to the Mediterranean the suggested frontier practically follows
the northern line of Arabic speech, taking in the Armenian villages of Jebel Musa,
the inhabitants of which were rescued in 1915 by the Allied fleets, and have since then
been refugees in Egypt.
3. Frontiers of Georgia.—"The area marked D and coloured green is territory
formerly belonging to Turkey which is inhabited by Lazes, that is, tribes which are
Georgian in language but Moslem in religion.
East of D the line assigns to Georgia the Akhaltzikh and Akhalkalaki districts,
which are inhabited chiefly by Armenians, descended from refugees who crossed
the Russian frontier from Turkey at various periods during the last century. On
grounds of nationality, therefore, these districts ought to belong to Armenia, but they
command the heart of Georgia strategically, and on the whole it would seem equitable
to assign them to Georgia, and give, their Armenian inhabitants the option of emigra
tion into the wide territories assigned to the Armenians towards the south-west.
The area marked A is inhabited by Abkhazians, an indigenous Moslem tribe who
are not Georgians in language. The Georgians have been attempting to annex Area A
during the last few months, and it is reported that the Abkhazians have been resisting
them by force of arms. This area should not be forced to unite with Georgia against
its will, and should either be left as part of Russia or kept separate and given foreign
assistance as an independent unit.
The two areas marked B are doubtful as between Georgia and the tribes of
Daghestan. As between Georgia and Azerbaijan, there are no difficulties of
4. The area marked E and coloured green belongs to the Nestorian (Assyrian)
Christians, who speak a Semitic dialect, and are distinct in every way from the
surrounding Kurds. The Nestorians have been badly treated during the war by the
About this item
The file contains correspondence, memoranda, maps, and other papers relating to Middle Eastern affairs and a few other miscellaneous matters. The majority of the file concerns discussions of and proposals for the post-war settlement of Near Eastern territories, including Turkey, Armenia, Georgia, Syria, Palestine, Iraq, and the Arabian Peninsula. The basis of these discussions was the Sykes-Picot agreement of 1916.
Other matters covered by the papers include events in Siam [Thailand] and Burmah [Myanmar] and the colonial rivalry in the region between France and Britain, the Baghdad Railway, and relations with Ibn Saud in Arabia, including a report on the 1917-18 mission to Najd by Harry St John Philby (folios 67-98).
Folios 99-110 are six maps with accompanying notes that show the various proposed territorial settlements and spheres of influence in the Near East and one showing Britain's global colonial possessions.
Memoranda and correspondence comes from officials at the Foreign Office and India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. . Other correspondents include French and Italian government officials.
- Extent and format
- 1 file (110 folios)
The file is arranged in roughly chronological order, from the front to the back.
- Physical characteristics
Foliation: the foliation sequence (used for referencing) commences at the front of the envelope with 1, and terminates at the inside back last page with 110, these numbers are written in pencil, are circled, and are located in the top right corner of the recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. side of each folio.
Pagination: the file also contains an original printed pagination sequence.
- Written in
- English and French in Latin script View the complete information for this record
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- Miscellaneous correspondence, reports, maps and other papers concerning the Middle East
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