'Bilder aus Mekka' by Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje

X463

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The record is made up of 1 half leather, published volume (c. 21 pages), illustrated with 20 collotype prints. It was created in 1889. It was written in German. The original is part of the British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers.

About this record

Content

Imprint:

Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1889

Genre/Subject Matter:

The volume contains seventeen landscape and urban scenes depicting the city of Mecca, in particular, the Masjid al-Haram, and, outside of Mecca, the grave of Maimoonah (the last wife the prophet Mohammed married), Mina and Mount Arafat. A number of these scenes are panoramic series, though they are mounted separately within the volume.

Although the volume was published by Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje in 1889, it is likely that the photographs were taken by al-Sayyid ‘Abd al-Ghaffār, a doctor based in Mecca who became Hurgronje’s assistant during the six months that he was based in Mecca. The attribution has been researched by Claude Sui in ‘Travel to the Holy Land and photography in the nineteenth century’, in: To the Holy Lands: Pilgrimage centres from Mecca and Medina to Jerusalem (Mannheim: Reiss-Engelhorn Museum, 2008), pp 56-63.

Arabic script, written onto many of the negatives, has been erased subtly, but is visible upon close inspection in the prints (with the exception of image 6, 9b, 18a and 18b, respectively X463/6, X463/10, X463/19, X463/20).

A short text written by Snouck Hurgronje introduces the volume and is dated March 1889. A list of plates follows this text and precedes the plates themselves.

Elements:

1 Ansicht der Moschee, während darin ein gemeinschaftliches Çalāt abgehalten wird (vergl. hierzu Mekka, Bd. II, S. 88).

2 Erste Ansicht der Stadt Mekka: links im Hintergrund die Festung Djijād. Das grosse Gebäude rechts ist ied [ sic for ‘die’] H̱amīdijjah, links daneben die Druckerei.

3 Zweite Ansicht der Stadt Mekka über die nordwestliche (rechts) und die südwestliche Seite (links) der Moschee hinaus.

4 Dritte Ansicht der Stadt Mekka: links die nördliche Ecke der Moschee; ein wenig südostlich von derselben das Bāb ès-salām, durch welches die Pilger in die Moschee eintreten.

5 Vierte Ansicht der Stadt Mekka.

6 Die (vor wenigen Jahren errichtete) Druckerei in Mekka.

7 Das Grab der Sittanā Mèjmūnah und Lager dorthin gepilgerter Mekkaner (vergl. für die Beschreibung des Festes der Sittanā Mèjmūnah Mekka, Bd. II, S. 52ff.).

8 Zweite Ansicht des Lagers der Mèjmūnahpilger.

9 A. Dritte Ansicht desselben; im Hintergrund windet sich der Weg nach Mekka.

9 B. Das Grab der Mèjmūnah und die nächste Umgebung.

10 Westlicher Theil des sich von Westen nach Osten erstreckenden Thales Muna (Mina) während der grossen jährlichen Pilgerversammlung.

11 Oestlicher Theil des Thales Muna.

12 Die zwischen Muna und ‘Arafah gelegene Pilgerstation Muzdal’fah.

13 Der Berg ‘Arafah während der jährlichen Pilgerversammlung (von Süden aus gesehen).

14 Oestliche Seite des Berges ‘Arafah.

15 Westliche Seite des Berges ‘Arafah.

16 Pilgerlager in der Ebene östlich vom ‘Arafah-berge.

17 Das Reitkameel (Hèdjīn) des Scherīf Jaẖja, eines Sohnes des Scherīf Aẖmed, dessen Vater der berühmte 1886 verstorbene Grossscherīf Abd èl-Muṯṯálib (vergl. über diesen letzten König Mekka’s vom alten Schlage Mekka, Bd. I, S. 16ff., 174ff.), mit einer reich mit Silber gestickten Satteldecke (batāt). Den Zaum hält der Sklave Jaẖja’s; neben diesem steht Jaẖja selbst im Reiteranzug und links in langen Kleidern zwei Scherife niedrigen Ranges.

18 A und B. Zwei verschiedene Aufnahmen der Rīkah, des Thronsessels, auf welchen man in Mekka die jungfräuliche Braut in der Duchlah-nacht zu erheben pflegt (vergl. Mekka, Bd. II, S. 167ff.). Auf B sitzt der Bräutigam dort, wo die Braut sitzen soll.

Inscriptions:

Inside front cover, in pencil: ‘305’ (crossed out); ‘30/9/14’ (crossed out); ‘W2982’ (former India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Library reference, crossed out)

Inside front cover, in pen: ‘X463’

First additional folio, recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. , in pencil: ‘21’

First additional folio, recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. , in pen: ‘Presented Dec. 30. 1889.’; ‘Bilder aus Mekka’

First folio, recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. , pencil: ‘W2982’ (crossed out)

First folio, recto The front of a sheet of paper or leaf, often abbreviated to 'r'. , ink stamp: ‘India Office Library’

First folio, verso The back of a paper sheet or leaf. , ink stamp and pen: ‘X463 22/2/72’

Last folio, verso The back of a paper sheet or leaf. , ink stamp: ‘India Office Library’

Last folio, verso The back of a paper sheet or leaf. , in pencil: ‘69’

Temporal Context:

The images were likely taken between 1886, when Hurgronje left Mecca, and 1889, when this volume was published.

According to Durkje van der Wal in his publication Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje: The First Western Photographer in Mecca, 1884-1885 (Amsterdam : Manfred & Hanna Heiting Fund, Rijksmuseum, 2011, pp. 42-51), the photographs in this publication that pertain to the hadj likely date to August 1888 since this was the period of the last hadj before February 1889, the date Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje received the final consignment of images.

Extent and format
1 half leather, published volume (c. 21 pages), illustrated with 20 collotype prints
It is grouped into
Physical characteristics

Dimensions:

Book: 365 x 300 x 15 mm

Format:

Red and tan half leather published volume containing 20 collotype prints, pasted down.

Materials:

Paper, heavy weight and satin standard weight, collotype prints and ink.

Condition:

While binding is still sturdy, extensive scuffing and surface losses are evident, particularly on the spine and all four corners. Surface dirt throughout volume. The prints show signs of light scuffing and scratching with no major surface losses evident.

Foliation:

The prints are numbered as plates: I-XVIIIb.

Process:

Collotype

Binding:

The sown spine is heavily scuffed with major surface losses. Gold lines demarcate wider bands in black-painted and tan leather. The words ‘Bilder aus Mekka’ ‘Hurgronje’ and ‘Secretary of State for India Library’ are imprinted in gold. White pigment pen at the base of the spine reads ‘X463’

Written in
German in Latin script
Type
Photograph

Archive information for this record

Access & Reference

Original held at
British Library: India Office The department of the British Government to which the Government of India reported between 1858 and 1947. The successor to the Court of Directors. Records and Private Papers
Access conditions

Unrestricted

Archive reference
X463
Former British Library reference
W2982

History of this record

Date(s)
1889 (CE, Gregorian)

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'Bilder aus Mekka' by Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje, British Library: India Office Records and Private Papers, X463, in Qatar Digital Library <https://www.qdl.qa/node/433> [accessed 15 July 2019]

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